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What can be said on effectiveness about chiropractic practice for acute and chronic back and neck pain, and cervicogenic headaches including migraine, is:

a)   Chiropractic manipulation is at least as effective as any other treatment, with better results than any treatment with which it has been compared.

b)   With chronic pain it provides patients with a period of relief from pain and disability that represents a window of opportunity for long-term relief.

c)   If chiropractic management is multimodal, including patient education and motivation, prescription and monitoring of exercises, and the use of supportive modalities and therapies such as massage and acupuncture as may be needed in individual cases, and other psychosocial interventions, this can bring long-term relief.